What is the degree of protection against ingress of foreign media?

Ingress Protection (IP) is a protection standard developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 60529). It determines the level of effective sealing of electrical equipment enclosures against the penetration of external foreign substances (dust, solids, liquids, etc.). How is the designation of the degree of protection against the ingress of foreign media deciphered? The ingress protection (IP) designation consists of two numbers.

The first of these indicates the degree of protection against the ingress of solid particles.

The second is the degree of protection against the penetration of liquids.

Degree of protection

Protection against solid foreign particles

Liquid protection


No protection


Solid particles > 50 mm

Vertically falling water drops


Solid particles > 12.5 mm

Drops of water falling at an angle up to 15° to the vertical


Solid particles > 2.5 mm

"Rain" water directed at an angle up to 60° to the vertical


Solid particles > 1 mm

Water splashes from all directions


Dust and microscopic particles

Jets of water from all directions


Any solid particles

Strong jets of water from all directions



Temporary immersion to a depth of 1 m for a period of not more than 30 minutes.



Long dive



Washing at high pressure and high temperature liquids from all directions


Sometimes a device does not require any special protection, regardless of the environment in which it operates. Such a device may require protection against solid particles, but not necessarily against the ingress of liquids, and vice versa. In this case, the digit is replaced by the symbol X. This degree of protection should not be confused with the degree of protection 0, indicating a zero level of protection against foreign media. An IPX-rated device is expected to be unaffected by foreign environments.

Please note: The highest level of protection against ingress of liquids is IPx8, allowing long-term immersion of devices, the immersion time of which is specified by the manufacturer. IP69K is a special industry standard that is different from other degrees of protection and corresponds to high pressure washing. Even though IP69K is a higher number, it does not mean that the protection is higher than IP68 (continuous water immersion).

Degree of protection against ingress of foreign media in industrial environments

Industrial equipment is often used in harsh or extremely harsh environments. Whether the equipment is used in agriculture, construction or any other industry, its electrical components must be able to resist solid particles, splashing water and heavy washing. IP69K is an industry standard (DIN 40050) with very high requirements to meet the requirements of the industry. It provides the highest level of protection against particulate matter (dust and microscopic particles), as well as resistance to all types of water splashes, including high-pressure hot water washing. In order to achieve the IP69K degree of protection, devices are subjected to a series of rigorous tests.